May. 18, 2017

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We've previously looked at flowers that need to be pollinated by bees that shake pollen out of tubular anthers.  Prairie smoke  is pollinated by female bumblebees, which push inside the tubular flowers, do their ecstatic vibrations, and accumulate pollen.  Other bees use pollen that is left behind on the edge of petals, or nectar that is reached by chewing holes at the base of the flower, but these don't play a role in pollinating the flowers.