Sep. 14, 2017

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Here's a leaf-cup flower head from about a month later.  There were no heads with ray flowers present.  The timing is based on my observations.  None of the literature I've reviewed mention it.  So I don't know if my observations are accurate, or merely coincidental.  The ray flowers are female.  The disc flowers are functionally male.  I can't imagine an advantage to having male flowers present when all the gals have disappeared.  Perhaps my observations are not typical.