Feb. 16, 2018

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Fens typically are level.  Ives is a rare hillside exception.  It is fairly uniformly covered by dense plant growth, rooted in soil built up from previous seasons.  It is not unusual in fens to see raised spots where artisian water comes up.  It brings with it a high concentration of calcium compounds.  As the water runs of, and as it also evaporates, it leaves behind clay and tufa deposits.  Over time, this builds into small domed spots with springs rising through them.  There are no such domes at Ives.  But I think the marly area of exposed clay where bog goldenrod grows is one of those in progress.  The plant life is certainly typical of a fen dome.